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Thursday, June 14, 2012

The Basics of Knit

Its a basics of Knitting.
First of all.
Tie a Slip Knot. The loop should connect to the yarn ball. Watch this video.
How to Knitting, Method off Knitting,

Friday, May 4, 2012

Science our Mother and Step-Mother

Science is a systematized body of knowledge which has enabled human being to unearth the mysteries of nature  and harness its wonderful powers. Science, is not some supernatural power which can be controlled like 'Jinn' and made to work wonders, but it is an offshoot of man's spirit of inquisitiveness, perfectibility and utility. History of human rise and fall, ebb and flow, is a record of science in its constructive and destructive fields. Science possesses gigantic powers and potentialities of good and evil. When the power of science rocks our cradle gently, science is our mother. When the power of science shakes our cradle violently, its depicts the step-motherly instinct.
From womb to tomb, science plays a dominant role. Every minor detail of our life is shaded by the technicolor-ed and multicolored achievements of science. Comfortable and civilized life is possible only in the lap of science. If a primitive man is brought from his grave into the wonderland of science, he will not believe whether he is dreaming or seeing the world of reality of the twentieth century man. In planning, decorating, protecting, maintaining and feeding the contemporary city life, science is indispensable.
The skies have been spanned, the space has been scanned, the unfathomably oceans have been measured, the Himalayas have been scaled, the dark abyss of earth has been penetrated and good many a treasure has been wrested from the bosom of nature.
Science has restored legs to the lame, eyes to the blind, the lungs to the T.B. patients and vitality to the emasculated.
Science has annihilated time and space, has controlled tides and facilitated rides. The aeroplanes carry passengers swiftly from place to place. Ships, trains, motors have all made human life comfortable. in case of famines, food is rushed and air-dropped. The telegraphic communications have mitigated the pangs of separation. Throbbing hearts meet frequently through letters, telephone and telegrams.
In the agricultural field, it has served a great deal. Artificial rain, artificial manure, electric heating and ripening have made man the master of his destiny, the captain of his soul. The aeroplanes sprinkle insecticide medicines on the locusts before they could attack the crops.
In the industrial field, machinery has made a great contribution. There can be traced a marked improvement in products, relief to the worker and general welfare. Human hands have got their limitations. the pins turned out in a machine may not be counted by an average mathematician. The production is very cheap. The worker has been saved from the nerve-wrecking toil the result, with that he can get more time for educational and cultural activities.
Leaving aside the necessities, there has been an addition in the comforts and luxuries of life. Air-conditioning brings the paradise on earth. No longer does a man feel the necessity to migrate to a hill station to save himself from the scorching heat. Electricity has various uses of lighting, cooking, dying and cleaning.
Atomic energy has tremendous potentialities for peaceful uses. The atomic energy also replacing other types of energy.
The recent Soviet advancement to launch "Sputniks" is a great leap forward. The mysterious planetary world will be known to the man within a short time. Journeys to the moon and the Mars are undertaken. Science driven out superstitions and lifted the people off the abyss of fate-ism. Science has broadened our outlook and widened the mental horizon.
Science is not, however an unmixed blessing. The Knife is useful to doctor in surgery, to a house-wife for domestic use and to a school boy to sharpen his pencil. The grim horrors of partition would reflect how bad the knife becomes when thrust in the belly of our own brethren. The mass destruction wrought by the atom bombs at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, the bacteriological warfare in Korea, Indo-China, the magnetic mines and torpedo in the Second World War, napalm bombs in Malaya, Middle East etc., are the living witnesses as to how the ghost of science dances on the heap of skeletons and charred bodies. The radioactivity has got its lasting bad effects. Who is not aware of the destructive powers of A--H--C--N bombs, paided missiles and other nuclear weapons?
Due to industrialization, dingy, and insanitary cities, over-crowded factories: slums and polluted atmosphere came into being. Labour-capital dispute took a new turn. The mounting capitalism is responsible for imperialistic wars fought with most ghastly weapons.
The fault, however, does not lie with science or the scientist. An ideal scientist discovers the hidden laws of nature and reveals truth dispassionately. The services of a scientist are utilized by the state, the business magnates and the financial-sharks. It is, really, a tragedy too deep for tears that science has become the maid-servant and the scientist a mercenary of the government or the monopolists. Modern scientist is helpless as he needs money, material and laboratory to do his research. His personal limited resources are quite insufficient. Time to time science has been prostituted at the lusty altar of political philanderers. Till the time, scientists of the world assert and safeguard their right zealously to explore concealed avenues of knowledge, the world is bound to suffer.
Scientist and mystic both proceed on to solve the riddle of the world. The former observes and the latter works by dint of his intuition. Scientist seems to win the race. If science has yet to march ahead, dive deep and soar high, the spirit of  "live and let live" has to be incorporated.
Wonderful powers are at the disposal of man. If he uses them wisely, the human life here would have the possibility of living in an ever-blissful atmosphere of high heavens. If he misuses them, he would sink deep into the burning cauldron of Hell. If science remains our useful servant, we prosper, if science becomes our bad master, we perish. Science as a mother is affectionate and kind, science as a step-mother is violent and cruel.

Thursday, May 3, 2012

Science in Daily Life.

Topic Contains : Science in daily life, or, Science in the Modern world, or, Science as the basis of modern civilization, or, Science and Technology.

Science, in the opinion of Earl Russell: "Had few social effects except upon the small number of learned men who took an interest in it, but in recent times it has been transforming ordinary life with ever-increasing velocity."
Since this comment was made in 1949, many rapid developments in all spheres of human life have been brought about by science. No single walk of our existence can now be found on which science has not lent its hand. Man is, in fact followed by science as by his own shadow. Our daily life as much as the whole society is now so thoroughly interconnected with science that we cannot run away from the shadow of science without bringing life itself to dead halt.
Science has changed and recast the very nature and pattern of our daily life. Our dependence on it never begins and never ends. It serves us as much when we work, as when we sleep, as largely at home and abroad. Thus, modern life has become a life planned, shaped, adorned and finished in a science laboratory. When a man is at home, science heats the chilly winter and cool's the sultry summer according to his wishes. When he goes out, science provides him the swiftest vehicle to travel with speed and comfort. When he is in his office, factory, farm or any other place, science follows him like a faithful dog and provides all the services that he may need. Again, when it is night, science lights up the streets and homes for his convenience. It also supplies him the purest water to drink and every kind of beverage, hot or cold, as he chooses. Science, also brings him the morning newspaper. If he wants none of these but a book, that also science has arranged for him. If at dead of nights he desires to contact somebody, far away from him right from his bed-room, science is ready with the telephone to help him. If the man is ailing and will not strain to walk up the stairs on his return home, there is the lift at his service. Thus, a modern man's daily life is made smooth and comfortable, swift and dynamic, by the service of science at every one of its turns.
Science has also shown us how we can save time and labor. At home, science does our cooking, washing, preserving and even cleaning. It saves our time and money and particularly in these days of self-help many households would face difficulty in the absence of the service rendered them as much as in towns while cheap transport facilities secure them frequent access into the advantages of urban life.
Thus, science envelopes our existence from head to foot. We are so much dependent on it that to isolate science from life would be to cease to live. But we do not feel that we owe so much to science because we have grown accustomed to its gifts and look upon them as things of course. If someday science stops serving us then and then we shall realize in full what it is doing for us now. Then, in the office, science has given us the typewriter, the computing machine, the Dictaphone,  the duplicator; the telephone, and hundreds of other labour-saving methods. Not only these mechanical devices save our time and give us more leisure to enjoy but also without their assistance the gigantic volume of work required to keep pace with the tempo of fast moving life of the day could never be performed in full.
Before the advent of science, man ate food blindly and did not know what food should be taken to preserve health. Science came, analysed the nutritive value of every foodstuff and conveyed the firs knowledge of balanced diet. We now know what should be eaten at breakfast and also what should not be taken at night. It went further and prepared synthetic food, containing vitamins and food values.
Science has contributed no less the the making of modern life incalculably cheap. The application of power to production and the even distribution of world's products among all countries through the use of scientific communication have combined to make daily, clothes and others very cheap. Books and papers are now available at a price which could not be thought of before the advance of science. Thus, science gives us all that we need for both physical and mental existence and all at the cheapest rate possible.
Even in the villages, where science has not yet made much headway, the daily life of the people is considerably under the influence of science. The villages get the benefit of industrialism no less than the urban people. They do not have electricity but have kerosene to light their houses and torches to help them in darkness. There are motor able roads and houses which ply regularly affording cheap traffic of men and goods. The cycle and the rickshaw carry them from place to place. The life-saving boons of science are also open to them as much in the towns, while cheap transport facilities secure them frequent access into advantages of urban life.

Thursday, March 1, 2012

Meaning of Guerrilla Warfare

The word Guerrilla (Spanish) is derived from Guerra which means "war". The "Guerrilla warfare" means " a mode of harassing an enemy by small bands." A member of such a band is called "Guerrilla".
"Guerrilla warfare," thus is "an irregular war waged independently by small bodies. At present, this term is used to represent a method of conducting war by employing bands living in an area occupied by enemy. Guerrilla warfare, unlike regular warfare, which is the concern of the armed forces, is carried on by fighters who may be either private citizens or regular soldiers cut of from their main force.

Mineral Resources of Pakistan.

Pakistan though deficient in minerals, but all the same, has been much alive to the importance of minerals in the development of the country. Valuable reports and maps were being published as a result of the Geological Survey of Pakistan. Foreign geological experts help was also sought for the geological exploration and seeking to tap the mineral wealth of the country. Iron, coal, mineral oil, natural gas, chromite, rock salt, gypsum, limestone, etc., are the minerals which are most vital to the economy of Pakistan.

Main Source of Income

What is the main source of income of Pakistan.

The main source of income of Pakistan is agriculture. The occupation of agriculture in Pakistan stretches as for back as the pre-historic times. Even at present it meets the main needs of the people's livelihood. It also accounts for the main source of the country's economy. Again, it is the source of raw materials for her principal industries. Approximately 95% of her exports are the products of arable and pastoral forming. More than 60% of Pakistan's income is due to agriculture.

Cementing Factor

Is Islam the cementing Factor for Pakistanis?

Yes, Islam is the cementing factor for Pakistanis. The ex-President of Pakistan, Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan, while addressing the diamond jubilee session of the Anjuman-e-Himayat-e-Islam at Lahore on March 26 1967 had said that you should exist your life according to Quran and making them the guiding principles of practical life. Islamic history should also be studied in its true perspective and a leaf should be taken from the events of the past.
The ex-President said that for more than the people of other Muslim countries, Pakistan needed the Islamic teachings most, because people in other Muslim countries shared the ties of language and race, but Pakistan Islam was the greatest cementing factor among its people. The only way to serve Islam and to preserve nationalism was to search the right path through the guidance of the Quran.

Pakistan's Central Importance.

Describe Pakistan's central importance in the Muslim World.

Pakistan maintains an internally important position in the world and in the Muslim world in particular. It is connected with the Muslim countries of South-West Asia, which are often linked together under the title of the Middle East countries. They are all rich in oil. The Arab countries of North Africa are situated to further westward. Thus, there is, by Allah's grace, one unbreakable chain of Muslim countries, which have got great agricultural and mineral resources. The Muslim States of Indonesia and Malaysia also lie in line with Pakistan. Thus, Pakistan is unique in many ways. It commands a central importance in the Muslim world.

Sunday, February 19, 2012

About The Origin and Significance of the name of " Pakistan ".

Pakistan, by Allah's grace, achieved existence on August 14, 1947 by way of transfer of power by the British Government to the people of the Sub-Continent. The division of the sub-continent become inevitable in the face of the pressure of the Muslim population to have a country of their own where, it was felt, their religion, culture, mode of life as well as participation in politics, industry and trade, would be secure.
The differences between the two main principal religious communities of the Sub-Continent, the Muslim and the Hindu, had taken clear shape, in the context of the inevitable movement towards the transfer of power, by the time their leaders met the British Government in London at the Round Table Conference, during early thirties.
The name " Pakistan " was first used by Chaudhry Rahmat Ali, a student, in a pamphlet published in London in the early thirties. The concept of a homeland for Indian Muslims was put forward by Allama Iqbal in his presidential address at the Allahabad session of the All Indian Muslim League in 1930. A session of the Muslim League was held in March 1940 at Lahore, where the pretentious Resolution demanding a separate "homeland" was passed. The Resolution was moved on March 23, by Maulvi Fazlul Haq and seconded by Ch. Khaiquzzaman Nawab Bahadur Yar Jung and one representative from each province. The Resolution was finally adopted at the night session on March 24, 1940.
The ambition of the Muslim nation was realized, seven years later, on August 14, 1947, when Muhammad Ali Jinnah become the first Governor-General of the new State of Pakistan.
In the name "Pakistan", the word 'P' stands for the Punjab, "A" for Afghan (i.e. Pathan, North-West Frontier Province), "K" for Kashmir, "S" for Sindh and "Tan" for Baluchistan.

Something about Warsaw Pact.

This treaty was signed at Warsaw, Poland in May, 1955 by Russia, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Albania, Poland and Rumania.
Each country promised to assist the other by all means in case of an attack. this alliance of Communist countries is as a counter measure against NATO and Western European Union. Albania and Rumania have left this alliance.

Hot War

At a time when a country finds it difficult to settle an international dispute, then it starts a conflict to solve that issue which is called Hot War or a Shooting War.

What is a Cold War?

Cold war is a political rather then a military affair. It precedes a formal declaration of war. It refers to a condition of international dispute somewhere  between negotiation and war itself. It is, in fact, a dangerous situation where relations among  nations have become strained and the next step in the worsening plight can lead to armed war. The participant nations in the cold war are, indeed, in political and economic conflict except by the exercise of mutual restraint, total war has not ensued.
It is with all possible means, short of war conflict except by the exercise of mutual restraint, total war by which a country aims at uprooting the existing balance of power. It makes utmost attempts to weaken the enemy by winning over his possible allies, overthrowing  constitutional authority through subversion and infiltration, confusing his beliefs and undermining his economy.
The Cold war, on account of division of the world in two blocs, following divergent policies, has acquired a world-wide range. Each bloc is seeking to reach, before war becomes inevitable, such a position that it can be won with the minimum period of fighting.

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Helpful Hints For Interview.

The candidate or interviewee is a bit in a nervous mood when he enters the Interview Room. His emotional balance has been upset a bit, by the consciousness that he is appearing before absolute strangers, who will, perhaps, be not kind enough in their assessment of his personality.
Therefore, the Interview Board tries to make the candidate feel quite at home before putting questions on him to discover the real worth of the candidate for the particular job for which he is being interviewed. For removing the emotional tension of the candidate, the members of the Board read out the "descriptive sheet" of the candidate which is a kind of brief account of particulars supplied by the candidate himself. Then, the Board puts easy questions on the candidates which restore more confidence to him in answering more hard and complex questions in the later part of the interview.
If the candidate feels that members of the Board are attempting to bother him unnecessarily by putting most irrelevant questions on him, then he can complain to the Chairman of the Board. It is the duty of the Chairman to put the candidate again at case. The candidate should, not in that case, attempt to enter into direct conversation with the individual members of the Board.
The Candidate should take advantage of the following helpful hints:
1. The candidate should enter the Interview Room with faith in Allah and Self-confidence.
2. While answering questions, he should speak in natural way.
3. The answer of the candidate should be relevant.
4. The candidate should avoid using the words "beg your pardon". He should try to answer the question as soon as it is put to him.
5. The candidate should not be get confused if a complicated question is put to him. He should not pause for a long time.
6. The candidate should not be unnerved under any circumstances. He should maintain the balance of his mind to the very end.
7. When talking to the Chairman and members of the Board, the candidate should look into their eyes. He should also be keen, lively and cheerful while talking to them.
8. The candidate must be courageous enough to admit his mistakes if the Board points out to that end. The spirit of honest owning his mistakes will enhance the prestige of the candidate in the eye of the Board.
9. The candidate should also not try to be over clever in answering questions. He should state only what he knows correctly. He should not attempt hazard guesses. If he does not know about a thing correctly, he must own it, gladly and should not bluff.
10. Whenever the candidate avails the chance of describing his own accomplishments of good family links, then he should convey it in a most tactful and subtle manner.
11. While undergoing am interview, the candidate should not inculcate the spirit of criticizing and finding faults with others. The candidate should know that he has not come to the interview to win a verbal battle but to avail a happy conversation. He should exhibit the spirit of agreeing rather than disagreeing.
12. The candidate must listen and observe. If the other man wants to talk, he must extend him chance. He must be an attentive and enthusiastic listening and answering.
13. Before appearing in an interview, the candidate should make a perpetual practice in the art of interview. For this purpose he should win the co-operation of his friends, colleagues and family members.

Friday, January 13, 2012

Qualities For A Good Interview

More can be learn about a person in a brief interview than through his answer books on different subjects. An article of interest can better be judged at a glance than through statement of its qualifications in its absence. A judgment can easily be formed at an interview because it calls forth all the faculties of human personality and as such is more significant and revealing than the written test. One may be extraordinarily successful in answering written questions but may not be desirable otherwise.
The interview has become an essential part of every important competitive examination. After written papers have been valued, interviews of a certain number of topmost successful candidates are held to decide finally about their fate. Viva voce or oral tests also form a part of regular examinations conducted by the Academic Body of the University of Oxford. Viva Voce discloses candidate's mental alertness, initiative, self-confidence, etc.
Importance of interview is very great. A successful interview of a few minutes may enable a candidate to win a decent career. It may carry him from the list of qualified candidates to that of selected candidates or even from the bottom of such a list to higher positions and ultimately to comparatively better services. On the other hand, a little bit of deficiency may turn the scales against him.
The military forces of Pakistan want to recruit Mujahed like young men. The military authorities seek to select such young men who develop the qualities of leadership, initiative, co-operative attitude, social adjustments, etc.
In an interview, generally, such questions are put to the candidate which bring out his common sense, his familiarity with the current national and international happenings and the current social and political trends of the world while answering questions in an interview the candidate or the interviewee must feel natural and easy. The candidate must answer questions in an easy way. The candidate must not attempt to answer those questions which are not put to him. To boast of his academic qualifications and family links, which have already been furnished in the application from, often, entangle the candidate into trouble.
An intelligent interviewee, keeping in view the kind of service he is pursuing, he can almost predict the nature of the questions that can be put to him. Therefore, the candidate should keep himself busy in collecting the required information, well in time.
The interviewee must be very smart in listening and answering the questions put to him. He should be sensible as well as sensitive. His approach to questions should be positive and not negative. The candidate should try to make the conversation lively and not dull. The candidate must use simple and right words while answering questions in an interview.
The interviewee who is able to talk fluently and express himself effectively will secure high marks. For that purpose, the candidate or interviewee must possess a sound knowledge on various subjects of discussion. The candidate must be in a position to support his views with valid reasoning. He should explain in a convincingly manner as to why he agrees or disagrees with a particular propositions. Simply saying 'yes' or 'no' to a question is not sufficient.
The Board which conducts the interview of the candidate, is not merely interested in his mere knowledge. It gives close attention to the candidate's reactions to various situations. It may, intentionally, endeavor to upset the mental stability of the candidate in order to discover his true personality. The Board may attempt to annoy or provoke him by pronouncing his name incorrectly, by not offering a chair to sit immediately, by asking to perform certain odd errands, viz., fetching water, serving tea, removing some furniture, etc. It is against respect to his mind by deliberately attributing certain wrong statements to him, pointing out to certain spots on his clothes, mixing up of personal facts. There are instances, where the interviewee has been asked to sing a song, recite a poem, crack a joke, etc. Such curious situations are coined by the Board for bringing out the true value of the interviewee. In all such odd circumstances, the Interviewee should attempt to retain his calmness and presence of mind.
For displaying good qualities in interview, the candidate should also observe the following helpful hints.
Speak in a natural way.
Don't Bluff.
Don't be Rude.
Sticking to one's point of view.
Keeping a copy of application.
Argument and challenge.
Be Fit.
Follow Direction.
Most of All " Keep Faith in Allah "

Saturday, January 7, 2012

Kinds Of Intelligence Tests

There are two kinds of intelligence tests. They are: Verbal Intelligence Tests and Non-Verbal Intelligence Tests.
Verbal Intelligence Tests: In a verbal intelligence test, the items are expressed in language forms. In this test, there are about 80 questions which are to be answered in a brief time of about half an hour.
The candidate must begin with solving the easy questions. He must try to solve them correctly. He must not be in much haste to spoil his work. He must be patient and steady in solving the problems. His confidence will help him to gain credit for himself in the tests. In order to gain a high number of marks, the candidate must concentrate on establishing relationships between different things or patterns given in the setting in the minimum time. He must observe very minutely the words, figures, patterns, etc. The candidate should note and analyses the particular relationship between these things.
The verbal intelligence tests are of various types. They are:
Analogy Test: One-word substitution, Insertion of Missing Letter, Insertion of Missing Number or Figure, Word Forming, Jumbled Words, Formation of Correct Sentence, Letter Distinction, General Knowledge Test, Alphabetical Test, Completion Test, Synonym Test, Direction Test, Completion Test, Coding Direction Test, Spotting the Stranger, Code Test Coding and Decoding, Commonsense Test, Multiple Choice Test, Arithmetic Test, etc.
Non-Verbal Intelligence Tests: In Non-verbal intelligence tests, the items are expressed by materials, for instance, line drawings, patterns, wooden or plastic pictures, etc.
These test are, usually, arranged to remove the inconvenience of most of the candidates who are not fully familiar with the language. Besides, the Mujaheds or soldiers in the Pakistan Armed Forces have often to tackle such situations in their practiced military life.
The non-verbal intelligence tests comprise: Matrix Test, Sequence Test, Mechanical Aptitude Test, Word Association Test, Thematic Apperception (Picture-Story writing) Test, Psychological Situational Test (The story of THEO or Mr.''X''), Block-Marking Test, etc.
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